Dynamic Neuroendocrine Modulation of the Nervous System
A male participant underwent brain imaging and venipuncture every 12-24h for 30 consecutive days to capture diurnal changes in hormone production. Standardized regression revealed predominantly positive associations between whole-brain patterns of coherence and steroid hormone concentrations. We compared these results to a dense-sampling dataset from a naturally-cycling female and found that fluctuations in both testosterone and estradiol were strongly associated with whole-brain patterns of coherence across nine different functional networks. Findings from this study enhance our understanding of testosterone and estradiol as rapid neuromodulatory hormones and provide evidence that diurnal changes in steroid hormone production impact large-scale brain networks.